Posted on: Friday, Jan 21, 2011
|— city —|
Location of Darbhanga
|Coordinates||26.17°N 85.9°E / 26.17°N 85.9°E / 26.17; 85.9Coordinates: 26.17°N 85.9°E / 26.17°N 85.9°E / 26.17; 85.9|
|Language(s)||Hindi , Maithili, Urdu|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
• 52 metres (171 ft)
There is controversy over its etymology. Some scholars say that the name originates from Dwar Banga or Dwar Vanga meaning “Gate of Bengal” as it was en route of the Bengal where some others argue that it got its name from Dwar Bhanga or “gates broken” (for gates of Hindu broken at Qilā Ghāt in 1326 AD when Tughlaq forces captured the last Hindu state in North India, ruled by Harisinghdeva).
The name of the district has been derived from its head quarter and principal town, which is said to have been founded by Darbhangi Khān, who was the Fauzdār or military head of Tughlaq forces stationed at Urdu (original meaning “cantonment“), later the title Darbhangi Khān was applied to his direct descendants. Darbhangā is home to Karna Kayasthas and Maithil Brahmin , among others.
The history of Darbhanga dates back to the Ramayana and Mahabharata periods; it is among the oldest cities of Bihar. According to the Vedic sources, the Videhas first migrated to the area from the banks of Saraswati in Punjab. They were guided to the east of Sadanira (Gandak River) by Agni, the God of Fire. Settlements were established and, thus, flourished the kingdom of the Videhas, the Selfless.
In the course of time Videhas came to be ruled by a line of kings called Janaks. In this line of kings there was a very famous king named Mithi. To commemorate his greatness the territory was named as MITHILA. Another famous king was Janak Sirdhwaja, father of Sita. The legends speak of various learned men patronized by Janak Sirdhwaja, who himself was an erudite scholar. Prominent among them were Yagyavalkya, who codified the Hindu law in his Yagyavalkya Smriti and Gautam, who had various valuable philosophical treatises to his credit. King Janak was himself a great philosopher and his ideas have been eternally enshrined in the Upanishads, especially in the Brihad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣada.
Traditions also speak of Kapila‘s relationship with this area that propounded the Sankhya philosophy. The association of this area with the Pandavas is also evident by the popular belief that they stayed here during their period of exile. The learned men like Vidyapati, Kumaril Bhatt, Mandan Mishra, and Nāgārjun belonged to this region.
Darbhanga is a town with a population of nearly 300 thousand. Some scholars say that Darbhanga was named after Dar (Dwar) + Bhangaa which means gates+broken. It is guessed that gates of the Qila (at Qilaghat probably) were broken (by cannons or elephants) in 1326 AD when Tughlak forces attacked the last independent North Indian Hindu king Harisinghdeva (of the Karnaata Chalukya dynasty from Karnataka) who ruled over North Bihar and most of Nepal. Historians guess that the capital of Harisinghdeva was situated near foothills of Himalayas, Haraahi pond in Darbhanga is named after Harisinghdeva and the pond Gangaasagar is named after his ancestor Gangadeva who was son of Naanyadeva, the founder of this dynasty; Naanyadeva was a chieftain of Chalukya king Vikramaditya-VI of Karnatak who had successfully invaded North India in the end of 11th century. Hindus began to flock to this town since the beginning of 19th century when the Maharaja of Darbhanga shifted his residence to this town and was granted the title Maharaja by East India Company. It was the biggest town of North Bihar for centuries, but after Muzaffarpur was connected to broad gauge railway in mid-1970s, the latter overtook Darbhanga due to shift of trade, commerce, business and transport to some extent. Once part of the Brahman kingdom of Mithila, Darbhanga passed to the Tughlaks in the 14th century. The British assumed control in 1765.
Darbhanga was an ancient city of Mithila, which is an ancient cultural region of North India lying between the lower ranges of the Himalayas and the Ganges River. The Nepal border cuts across the top fringe of this region. The Gandak and Kosi Rivers are rough western and eastern boundaries of Mithila.
It is a noteworthy seat of the Maharaja of Darbhanga. During Akbar‘s reign in the sixteenth century, a second Maithil Brahman family came to rule as the Khandavala Dynasty. During this period, Akbar also planted 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, at a place now known as Lakhi Bagh  By British times, their estate, Darbhanga Raj, was the largest and richest of the great zamindari estates. Their capital was in Bhaur village in Madhubani, later shifted to the town of Darbhanga. They controlled most of Mithila until after Independence when the Republic of India abolished zamindari (Maharaja of Darbhanga was actually a zamindar entitled to add the title Maharaja in his name, besides the British title KCIE).
Maharajah Sir Lakhmishwar Singh, K.C.I.E., of Darbhanga, who was only in his forty-third year at the time of his death in 1898, was in every sense the best type of the Indian nobleman and landlord. He was the leading zamindar in India, where he owned no less than 2,152 square miles (5,570 km2) with a net yearly rental of 30 lakhs, and was the recognized head of the orthodox Hindu community. His philanthropy and his munificent contributions to all public movement won him the esteem of all classes and creeds. He took an active part in public life and enjoyed a high reputation as a progressive and liberal minded statesman. With but slight interruptions he was a member of the Supreme Legislative Council from the year 1883 until his death, and latterly he sat in that body as the elected representative of the non-official members of the Bengal Council.
The Maharaja of Darbhanga, Kameshwar Singh was also an integral part of the Constituent Assembly of India and was instrumental in campaigning for retention of privy purses and land rights for rulers. He single handedly negotiated rights of various rulers and nawabs.
Darbhanga city is essentially a twin city with Darbhanga tower and Laheriasarai tower at its two ends. Laheriasarai has been named after the famous Lahri walas whose traditional occupation was to weave textiles and make bangles especially of Lah, imported from Ranchi and other places.
The District of Darbhanga can be divided into four natural divisions. The eastern portion consisting of Ghanshyampur, Biraul and Kusheshwarsthan blocks contain fresh silt deposited by the Kosi River. This region was under the influence of Kosi floods till the construction of Kosi embankment in the Second Five Year Plan. It contains large tracts of sandy land covered with wild marsh.
The second division consists of the anchals lying south of the Boorhi Gandak river and is the most fertile area in the district. It is also on higher level than the other part of the district and contains very few marshes. It is well suited to the rabbi crops.
The third natural region is the doab between the Burhi Gandak and Baghmati and consists of the low-lying areas dotted over by chaur and marshes. It gets floods every year. The fourth division covers the Sadar sub-division of the district. This tract is watered by numerous streams and contains some up-lands.
The district has a vast alluvial plain devoid of any hills. There is a gentle slope from north to south with a depression on the centre. Numerous rivers originating in the Himalays water this district. Out of these rivers Kamla, Baghmati, Kosi and Kareh are of most importance. The District has somewhat dry and healthy climate. There are three well-marked seasons, the winter, the summer & the Rainy season. The cold weather begins in November and continues up to February, though March is also somewhat cool. Westerly winds begin to blow in the second half of March and temperature rises considerably. May is the hottest month when the temperature goes up to 107 °F (42 °C). Rain sets in towards the middle of June. With the advent of the Rainy seasons, temperature falls and humidity rises. The moist heat of the Rainy season is very oppressive up to August. The rain continues till the middle of October. Average rainfall is 1142.3 mm. around 92% of rainfall is received during monsoon months.
Languages and Religion
The languages spoken in this district are Maithili and Hindi and its variations, Urdu and its unique style spoken by locale Muslim Community. Other languages spoken by their respective speakers are Bengali, Marwari, Punjabi, Sindhi and Nepali. Religion-wise breakup of population is indicated below as per 1991 census: Hindus: 19,55,068, Muslims: 8,55,429, Christians: 141, Sikhs: 198, Buddhists: 26, Jains: 27, Other religions and persuasions: 70.
- Movie Planet (in Raj Quila)
- National (Near Naka no.5)
- Uma (Near Cinema Chowk)
- Craze dolby (Near Cinema Chowk)
- Punam (Near Tower Chowk, Darbhanga)
- Shiv Planet (Laxmipur Pator)- It is closed now.
- Light House (Laheriasarai)
Dental college bahera more popular place of darbhanga
- Hotel Ravi
- Hotel P & P International
- Hotel Ganga Executive club inside the Rambagh,
- Goutam Hotal,
- Arwind Hotel,
- Tara Hotel,
- Maharaja Hotel,
- Hotel Naveen Residency,
- Hotel Ashoka.
- Hotel Prince, Laheriasarai
As of 2001 India census, Darbhanga Town had a population of 266,834. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Darbhanga has an average literacy rate of 64%, which is higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 72% and, female literacy is 56%. In Darbhanga, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. Darbhanga is a place where people of different languages and religions live. There are many lingual minorities which have contributed in the development of Darbhanga. Bengalis have served specially in the education and in the medical sectors in highly regarded high profile jobs and also achieved in literature and arts. They are here for more than a century. Today there are many big names and scholar Bengali families in Darbhanga. Marwaris who also exist in Darbhanga for more than a century really contributed to its economic growth and take its shape. Now it is very to hard think economic activities without them. There are many affluent Marwari families in Darbhanga which are known for philanthropy and they pioneered to open several schools, colleges and other institutions.Like other cities id India, Punjabi and Sindhi came specially after the partition as refugees but their hard labor and devotion towards work made them one of the most richest segments of Darbhanga. They also have their own establishments like gurudwars. There are a significant number of Nepali people which can be found in different jobs. There are a small South Indian community ( Specially Keralite Christians) which also do jobs as teachers or medical staffs. They have contributed to many establishments like Holy Cross School which really started a new new kind of education in Darbhanga.
2 Universities, 17 General Colleges (Constituent), 5 Sanskrit College (Constituent), 26 General College (Affiliated) and 1 Sanskrit College (Affiliated) exists beside a hoarde of other colleges for professional education. Beside this, following categories of schools/colleges are imparting secondary level education:
- High School- 70
- Middle School- 312
- Primary School- 1165
Besides these there are around 900 coaching centres/institutes.They are varied in their area of expertise and training.All these(Universities,colleges,schools and coaching centres) make Darbhanga a major educational destination of North Bihar.Students from many other states like Kashmir and other districts flock Darbhanga.
Following two universities recognised by University Grants Commission (of India) and Government of India are located in Darbhanga town, adjacent to each other: (1) Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University, (2) Lalit Narayan Mithila University, (3) IGNOU Darbhanga Center, (4) National Urdu University, Darbhanga Campus.
Mithila Research Institute in Darbhanga town has a great collection of nearly 50000 old manuscripts.
Colleges for Professional Courses: Darbhanga Institute of Technology, Darbhanga Medical College & Hospital (DMCH), Darbhanga Dental College, Mithila Minority Dental College, Salfia unani medical college, Saryug Dental College, MRM Aurvedic College (Darbhanga), Maharani Rameshwari Bhartiya Chikitsa Vigyan Sansthan (Mohanpur), Women’s Institute of Technology, Dr Zakir Hussaun Teacher’s Training College, Nurses Training School, Government Polytechnic College, Bihar Govt. Industrical Training Institute (ITI), Imarat Mujibia Technical Institute Mahdauli (IMTI), Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Industrial Training Institute (MAKAITI),
- Degree Colleges
M.R.S.M College Anandpur (Sahora), Brahmanand Kala Mahavidyalay, C. M. College, C M Science College, R.N.M.Govt Girls Intermediate College,Laheriasarai, K S College, Lohia Charan Singh College, M.K.College, M.L.S.M College, M.M.T.M. College, M.R.M. College, Mahatma Gandhi College, Maq college, Marwari college, Millat College (Laheria Sarai), R B Jalan College, R L College Nimaithi, Janta Koshi College (Biroul), Vidya Nand Mithila Sanskrit College, Darbhanga.
- Secondary Level Schools
Delhi Public School Kadirabad, Kendriya Vidyalaya (3 Nos.), Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, North Brook Zila School, Government High School, Pindaruch, Woodbine Modern School, Atihar high school Atihar, Sarvoday high School, Gangasagar, Purvanchal High School, Marwari High School, L. R Girls High School, M.C.High School Kadirabad, Onkar High School SUPAUL BAZAR, Mukundi Chaudhari High School, .L.J.L. Sahu High School Khirma, H. B. Sogra High Memorial Urdu Girl School Halim Khan, Janta High School-Jiwachh Ghat (Muria), Videh High School (Ughara), Mithila High School Makhnahi, D A V Public School, Saramohanpur’ Darbhanga Central School, Darbhanga Public School, Don Bosco School, Gyan Bharti School, Harrow English school, Iqra Academy, Holy Cross School, Jesus And Marry Academy, Kid Care School, Maddonna English school, Rose Public School, Salfia school, Vidhya Vihar Vidhalay, Model Public School Saho Parari, High School Pohaddi, Mahinam, M.L.Academy (Sarasvati School), Laheriasarai, D.N. High School, Panchobh, Raj High school, Darbhanga Public School, Mahip Narayan Middle School, Shafi Muslim High School, Musa Sah School, Gyan Niketan public school, Anandpur Alhera public school Urdu
- Coaching Centres
The demand is higher than supply and in such a scenario coaching centres fulfill a great need.Naming the coaching centres is not an easy task.Suffice it to tell that most (around 75%)deal with science subjects.English and Spoken English comes in the second.The biggest names are related to competitive exams like IAS,BPSC,PO,SSC,MBA,Engineering and Medical Exams.There is also a haphahazardness relating to coaching industry.Govt. is soon going to bring a legislation for better regulation of these institutes.There are philanthropic educational efforts also.Scientia Oeikos,Rahbar and many others try to help poor students.Depth Academy(For IAS,BPSC,MBA,PO,SSC etc.) needs special mention which gives free education to the disadvantaged like Dalits,Dalit Muslims,Dalit Christians and financially challenged students from other communities.The govt. also runs coaching centres for the disadvantaged.
Darbhanga is highly regarded for its quality of education in the surrounding regions which attracts flocks of the students. There are many well know educationists in Darbhanga known for their pedagogy.
Darbhanga (Station Code -“DBG”) is one of the most important railway station of “A1” category under the East Central Railway (ECR) headquartered at Hajipur.Darbhanga was the first city of north Bihar to get connection with meter gauge track in 1875, when track between Bajitpur (at the banks of ganga) Darbhanga laid. Later the railway line extended towards eastern side up to Kosi river up to kanwaGhat and other side of the river was Anchra Ghat linking to Purnia in the East. On west side track was linkd up to Gorakhpur, making whole route as Trunk route. But due to Floods and Kosi’s curse change both lines ware broken. Now a bridge on Gandak at Valmikinagar was build to connect West side and another mega bridge on Kosi at Nirmali is under construction which will link Far Eastern region with main land.
There are three important railway lines:
- Darbhanga to Samastipur (Broad Gauge)
- Darbhanga to Sitamadhi (Broad Gauage)
- Darbhanga to Jaynagar (Broad gauage)
- Sakri to Biraul <Hasanpur/Khagaria>- New BG line up to Biraul has been constructed.
- Sakri-Nirmali/Laukaha Bazaar MG.
Direct trains are also available from Darbhanga-
- Jaynagar/Darbhanga to Sealdah, Chitpur (Kolkata) (Gangasagar Exp)-(Mithilanchal Exp)- Maithili Exp),
- Darbhanga to New Delhi / Delhi (Bihar Sampark Kranti SF), Swatantrata Sainani SF),(Licchavi Exp)
- Darbhanga to Pune (Gyan Ganga Exp) via. Nagpur and Jabalpur Junction in Madhya Pradesh (Weekly 1033/1034),
- Darbhanga to (LTT) Mumbai (Pawan Exp) via. Jabalpur,(Karmbhumi Sf)
- Darbhanga to Chennai / Bangalore/Mysore([[Bagmati (SF))
- Jaynagar/Darbhanga to Amritser (Shaheed, Saryu Yamuna Exp, Jannayak Exp),
- Jaynagar/Darbhanga to Patna/Danapur (Intercity Exp),(Kamla Ganga Intercity)
- Darbhanga to Guwahati (Jeewach Exp),
- Darbhanga to Ahmadabad (Sabarmati Express).
- Garibrath Express_Bi Weekly (Jaynagar/Darbhanga_HazratNizamuddin),
- Janki Express (Jaynagar/Darbhanga_Saharsa) Tri Weekly’
- Darbhanga_Puri Express Weekly,
- Darbhanga_Guwahati Weekly Super Fast Special,
- Jayanagar – Ranchi Exp (Tri weekly).
Other important towns connected with Darbhanga are: Gorakhpur; Varanasi, Allahabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, New Jalpaiguri, Satna, Katni, Jabalpur, Itarsi (Near Bhopal), Khandwa, Jhansi, Nagpur, Vijaywada, Ludhiana, Chennai.
Approx. for every major cities it has direct train, but still it is not connected directly with Hyderabad/Secunderabad. It do not have any direct trains for Jaipur, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Ujjain, Ratlam, Surat and Goa.
- Railway Stations and Halts
Darbhanga Jn (Main City Station), Laheriasarai (Near Civil Court),Garri is the biggest villege for the moughal community and most of the people are highly educated Kakarghati, Bijuli halt, Tarsarai (Muria), Thalwara, Siso Halt, Mohammadpur, Kamtaul, Tektar, Hayaghat, Rambhadra Pur, Jogiara, Muraitha, Mandan Mishra Halt(Tatuar – Sakhwar), Biroul, Mirzapur, Manigachi, Deora Bandhouli. Benipur , Pohaddi Laxmipur Halt, Neuri, Biraul.
The town had an industrial development authority ( Bihar Industrial Development Authority )placed north of the government polytechnic college. This authority provides assistance to start business or small or medium scale industry in the district. The authority had land for allotting it to the industrial unit in the campus.The authority have a piece of land at Donar also for allotting it to the industrial units in Darbhanga. Darbhanga is also very famous for MAKHANA,MANGO and LICHI. In Medicine business Darbhanga is one of the biggest centre. Shivdhara Grain Market Yard is another big market activity center in Darbhanga.